Undertaking various forms of cross-border Phone Number List movement on a daily basis. These mobilities differ from migration (if we think of it as a project of partial or definitive settlement in another country). A significant part of cross-border women live in their country of origin or develop bi-residential strategies. Although they face processes of social Phone Number List marginalization, overload and poverty that also affect women who migrate internationally to cities and towns far from national borders, the specificity of their condition refers to the way they use the daily border Phone Number List crossing to solve their problems.
Their productive and Phone Number List reproductive responsibilities. The intensity, You are the battlefield The historical link between the formation of Latin American nation-states, gender violence and international borders remained invisible in the social sciences and in history until the 1980s. Most of the hegemonic historiographies Phone Number List on nations or nationalism ignored gender relations as "irrelevant"6. This overshadowed the role of women in the formation of central state structures, such as borders. On the other hand, in the process of constitution of the border regions of the Latin American republics, in the nineteenth century , these territories were represented as Phone Number List propitious for male domination, subjugation.
Penetration and material exploitation. The two Phone Number List triple frontiers where I carry out my ethnographic work –the Andean and the Paraná– are convincing examples. Both were defined after two violent war outcomes, the wars of the Pacific (1789-1883) and Paraguay (1864-1870). These conflicts instituted military confrontation as the main process of Phone Number List building national boundaries, naturalizing military (and male) violence as the current language of border territories. Thus, a certain permissiveness of patterns of violent abuse of border populations in general, and of women in particular, was established: their domination, rape and/or extermination Phone Number List became a vehicle for the expression of the power of nation-states. Far from constituting a forgotten past, the.